If you experience irregular bleeding between your normal menstrual periods or bleeding after menopause, it is important you talk with your GP or gynaecologist.

What causes of abnormal bleeding?

There are many causes of abnormal bleeding and a simple pelvic examination or PAP smear (also known as PAP test) can help identify the source of bleeding.

Other causes of abnormal bleeding include fibroids, polyps and endometrial hyperplasia (a condition in which there is excessive growth of the lining of the womb).

What investigations may I need?

The two most common investigations for abnormal bleeding are ultrasound scan and hysteroscopy. Fibroids, polyps and endometrial hyperplasia can all be detected on ultrasound. For some patients, your gynaecologist may recommend a hysteroscopy.

What is a hysteroscopy?

A hysteroscopy is a minimally-invasive procedure used to examine the inside of the womb.

It’s carried out using a hysteroscope, which is a narrow telescope with a light and camera at the end. The hysteroscope is passed into your womb through your vagina and cervix (entrance to the womb), which means no cuts need to be made in your skin.

Images are sent to a monitor so your gynaecologist or specialist nurse can see inside your womb.

In some cases, hysteroscopy is performed to diagnose and treat the problem in same procedure.  It is also an important test to exclude the possibility of cancer inside the womb.

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