Anal fistula removal

Anal fistula removal

An anal fistula is defined as an infected abnormal cavity crammed with pus found near the anus or rectum. It results in an acute infection within the internal glands of the anus. The discharge gets clear on its own, through medications, or by surgical intervention. 

The primary cause of anal fistula includes blockage of the glands inside the anus. It ends in building up of bacteria that create swollen pockets of infected tissue and liquid. Other causes include intestinal inflammatory disease, trauma, tuberculosis, anorectal cancer, diverticulitis, and tumour, including leukaemia.

Symptoms

The symptoms of anal fistula vary from person to person. Foremost common symptoms associated with anal fistula include

  • Swelling and pain around the anal area
  • Fever and chill
  • Itching and redness around the anal opening pus discharge near the anal opening 
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Irritation of the perianal skin

Treatment Options

Treatments 

There are several procedures and treatment options available to treat anal fistulas, depending on the fistula’s position and whether its single channel or has branches in numerous directions.

Non-surgical treatment

The treatment of fistula is surgical drainage under most circumstances, and if you don’t treat the abscess, it will grow. 

  • Medications – Antibiotics are initially given to treat the associated infection. Your doctor may prescribe pain killers to subside the pain. 
  • Fibre glue – To date, treatment with fibrin glue is the only effective non-surgical option available for anal fistula. In this procedure, glue is injected into the fistula tunnel with a fluid that your body will absorb over time. The glue helps to seal the fistula and heals the area.

Surgical treatment

In the case of anal fistula, antibiotics and other medications do not work for a long time, and surgery is required to cure the fistula. The surgical treatment includes 

  • Fistulotomy – It is the most common type of surgery and involves opening of fistula in a way that permits it to heal from inside out just as a flat scar.
  • Advancement flap procedure – This procedure involves cutting or scraping out the fistula and creating a flap from the rectal wall. Later, the internal opening of the fistula is removed, and the flap is then used to cover the repairs.
  • Seton placement – If fistula passes through a substantial portion of the anal sphincter, then seton placement is usually recommended. This procedure involves placing a suture or surgical thread in the fistula that is progressively tightened. 

Seton placement lets the fistula heal behind the seton (a piece of surgical thread) and reduces incontinence while avoiding the need to cut the sphincter muscle. 

  • LIFT procedure – This procedure involves cutting of skin above fistula and moving sphincter muscle apart. The cut is sealed with absorbable sutures after the operation is completed. 
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