Bunion Surgery

Bunion Surgery

A bunion is also known as hallux valgus. It is a bony protuberance or bump that forms on the joint at the base of your toe. It develops when the bones present at the front part of the foot move outward, causing the toe’s delocalization. It appears as a big toe pointing towards other toes on the same foot. It occurs slowly, and it grows bigger with time. Bunion changes the shape of the toe and causes the tip to get pulled towards the smaller toe. In some severe cases, the big toe may even move on top of the adjacent toe.

The significant causes of a bunion formation are yet under consideration and are not sorted out completely, but wearing tight shoes can trigger a bunion. Other causes associated with bunion include abnormal pressure on the toe, wearing a combination of certain foot types, inherited foot type, deformities present at birth, repetitive stress on feet, inflammatory arthritis, neuromuscular condition, and injury.


The symptoms of bunion appear slowly with time. Firstly, a bump is formed on the toe, which gets more prominent over time. Some common symptoms of bunion include

  • A bony or swollen bump on the outer edge of the foot
  • The sensation of pain or burning in the affected area
  • Swelling and redness of the toe joint
  • Changes in the shape of the foot
  • Difficulty in walking, or moving toe
  • Hard, callused skin on the affected area of the toe

Treatment Options

Symptoms of a bunion can get worse if not treated promptly. Treatment depends upon the severity and condition of a bunion. Numerous surgical and non-surgical treatments are available.  

Non-surgical treatment

Non-surgical procedures help to provide relief from the pain. Self-care is also very much important. Non-surgical treatments include

  • Medication – Different anti-inflammatory medicines like ibuprofen, naproxen, or acetaminophen have shown to help provide relief from pain.
  • Icing – Applying ice on the affected area if the bunion gets inflamed helps reduce the swelling or soreness.
  • Shoe inserts – To distribute the pressure evenly while moving the foot, Padded shoe inserts are used. They reduce the symptoms and bunion from getting worse.

Surgical treatment

If bunion pain is severe or getting worse with time and no medication provided relief from pain, then surgical procedures are applied to restore the original shape and position of the toe.

  • Osteotomy – Osteotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting and repositioning the bone. In this process, the wedge of the bone located near the damaged joint is removed. The bone is rotated and is fixed in place with screws or pins.
  • Bunionectomy – This operation involves the realigning of muscles, tendons, and ligaments by shredding off the bones’ enlarged portions. Only bunion bump is removed in this procedure.

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