Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Endoscopic sinus surgery is the main surgical treatment for sinusitis. Sinusitis is a nasal condition that involves inflammation of the linings of the nasal sinuses. This inflammation or swelling is mostly caused by infection or building up of mucus in the bony spaces around the nose. Due to contamination and obstruction of the nasal area, nasal congestion occurs that may cause mild to severe pain and other symptoms. The nasal region is blocked due to the accumulation of secretions, and it prevents the flow of air through sinus – leading to sinusitis.

The most significant cause of sinusitis includes infection or swelling due to allergy. Bacterial, fungal, and viral infections can also cause the condition. Smoking, dental infection, air pollutants can also increase the chance of infection. 90% of sinus cases are the result of viral infection.


Symptoms of sinusitis can be mild or severe, and pain can get worse while coughing or sneezing. In severe cases, symptoms can continue for 12 weeks or longer. Some of the common symptoms include

  • Blocked nose
  • Fever and headache
  • Fatigue
  • Bad breath and sore throat
  • Dripping of green or yellow mucus from the nose
  • The sensation of pain, toothache
  • Swelling around the area and watery eyes
  • Decreased sense of smell

Treatment Options

The mild infection goes away on its own without any treatment, but if the conditions last longer, then treatment becomes mandatory.

Non-surgical treatment

The treatment’s primary purpose is to provide relief from the pain and restore the normal flow of air without blockage through the sinus. Common treatments include

  • Antibiotics – Antibiotics are given in case of bacterial infection. Usually, 7 to 10 days of medicines are prescribed. Steroid nasal sprays can also be used to reduce the swelling.
  • Painkiller – Different painkillers and anti-inflammatory medicines like paracetamol, ibuprofen, and naproxen are suggested to reduce pain and fever.
  • Steam inhalation – Steam is a simple and easy way to get rid of congestion. Taking steam of warm water with menthol drops is an effective way to unlock the congested sinuses. 
  • Rest – Taking proper rest and avoiding overexertion and stress may also help to reduce the symptoms

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatments are usually recommended when non-surgical treatments turn out to be ineffective in providing relief. Surgical treatment includes

  • Endoscopic sinus surgery – Endoscopic sinus surgery is the main operation performed for sinusitis treatment. The surgeon enters the nasal cavity through an endoscope (tiny surgical instruments with an attached camera and surgical tools at the end). The endoscope is used to remove unwanted tissues or polyps and opens up sinus air cells and bony sinuses. If the bony structures lining up the nasal cavity are blocking the cavity, they are cleaned to improve breathing. The whole process is performed under general anaesthesia.

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