Gynaecological Pain

Gynaecological Pain

Gynaecological pain mostly refers to pain in the lower abdomen and pelvic organs like uterus, fallopian tube, vagina, ovaries, cervix, or vulva. There are many causes linked to gynaecological pain. It can be due to menstrual cramps that usually lasts from one to three days, or can also arise due to ectopic pregnancy, which happens when the embryo implants someplace outside the uterus and starts to grow. Mostly this occurs in the fallopian tube. 

Gynaecological pain can also occur due to any sexually transmitted diseases like chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Some other causes are uterine fibrosis, urinary tract infection, vulvodynia, and inflammation in vulva.


Symptoms of gynaecological pain vary from person to person, depending on the type and condition. Some of the common symptoms are

  • Cramps in lower belly or back 
  • Sharp pelvic pain or cramps
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Nausea and dizziness
  • Belly pain and fever
  • The sensation of pressure in the abdomen
  • Lower back pain
  • Unusual vaginal discharges 

Treatment Options

Your treatment plan may include one or more of the non-surgical or surgical treatments described below.


The purpose of gynaecological pain treatment is to diagnose the condition responsible for the symptoms and then to treat them. It can be done through non-surgical or surgical treatment options. 

Non-surgical treatment

Treatment options differ depending upon the condition. Non-surgical treatments are always preferred. Some of the significant options include;

  • Heat pads – Applying heat pads on the area of pain and keeping your abdominal area warm helps in pain relief.
  • Non-steroid/Anti-inflammatory drugs – Sometimes, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to reduce the pain. Naproxen, aspirin, ketorolac, and flurbiprofen helps to reduce pain.
  • Hormonal treatment – Pains related to endometriosis and menstruation can be treated using hormones. These hormones can be swallowed, injected, or placed in the uterus such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone injections. 
  • Physical therapy – In some types of pain, like muscle or connective tissue pain, physical therapy is prescribed. Massages, stretching, and pelvic exercises improve body posture helps in pain relief.
  • Trigger point injection – These are applied for myofascial pain and in case of muscle twitch reactions. These injections bring immediate relief in such conditions.

Surgical treatments

When non-surgical treatment fails to work, surgical procedures are performed. Some of the surgical methods include;

  • Laparotomy – This process involves incisions in the lower abdomen. Through this operation, the surgeon can remove implants and adhesions, for example, removal of ovary cysts.
  • Salpingostomy – This procedure is performed in case of blockage in the fallopian tube. An opening is created in the fallopian tube, but the tube itself is not removed.
  • Uterus removal surgery – It is performed to remove the uterus in the case of uterine cancer, fibroids, or any inflammatory disease.

Dr Ayman Eissa

Ayman is a Consultant in Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine at Sheffield Children’s Hospital and is also a specialist in the management of chronic pain in adults.

01709 464200 




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