Haemorrhoid, also called piles, are swollen or stretched veins within the lower part of the anus and rectum, inside the anal canal. Sometimes, the walls of the blood vessels stretch so thin that veins bulge and get irritated. Although haemorrhoids are often discomforting and painful, their treatment is easy, and they often get better on their own.
The most significant cause of haemorrhoids is increased pressure in the lower rectum that results in swelling of the veins. Some of the common causes of haemorrhoids include being obese, being pregnant, eating little fibre food, straining during bowel movements, heavy lifting, chronic diarrhoea, or constipation.
The symptoms of haemorrhoids vary from person to person, depending on their type (internal or external). Some of the common symptoms are
- Itching and irritation in your anal area
- Pain and discomfort
- Swelling around the anus
- Swollen veins and inflammation
- Bleeding during bowel movement
- Hard bump near the anus
Treatment of haemorrhoids depends upon its severity, type, and the symptoms observed. Multiple surgical and non-surgical treatments are performed to cure it.
In the majority of the cases, non-surgical treatments are enough to cure haemorrhoids. These are cost-effective and time-saving techniques for patients suffering from an early haemorrhoidal disease.
- Creams and ointments – Over-the-counter (OTC) ointments, pads, and suppositories containing hydrocortisone are highly recommended. They provide relief from burning, itching, bleeding, and many other symptoms. The most influential pain reliever is lidocaine. It contains healing herbs and amino acids.
- Ice packs – Applying ice packs to inflamed areas help to give pain relief and also helps with the swelling.
- Coagulation – It is a medical procedure and involves the use of a specific device that creates an intense beam and heat. The heat causes scar tissue, which cuts off blood supply to haemorrhoids.
- Rubber band ligation – In this procedure, one or two tiny rubber bands are placed around the base of both internal and external haemorrhoids to cut off blood circulation. Haemorrhoid either falls off or shrink within a week, and is removed during a normal bowel movement.
If non-surgical procedures fail to work, surgical treatments are considered, especially if you have large haemorrhoids. The surgical treatment includes
- Haemorrhoid removal – It is also known as haemorrhoidectomy. Surgery can be performed with local anaesthesia combined with sedation. In this procedure, a variety of surgical instruments are used to open the anus and gently cutting out haemorrhoids.
- Haemorrhoid strapping – It is also known as stapled haemorrhoidectomy
- . The surgery is performed with a scalpel, a tool that uses electricity or laser. It blocks the flow of haemorrhoidal tissue. This treatment is characteristically used for internal haemorrhoids and requires two to four weeks for recovery.
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