Nasal polyps are the swellings or harmless soft folds of the nose lining, causing nasal obstruction. They usually grow slowly and take the space of the nasal cavity resulting in blockage of the nose. Nasal polyps cause inflammation in the nasal cavity and reduce the sense of smell and taste. Polyps cause conditions like runny nose and increased nasal secretion.
Different factors are linked to their occurrence, including nasal allergy, asthma, aspirin sensitivity, deficiency of vitamin D, and allergic fungal sinusitis can also cause nasal polyps. Cystic fibrosis is an ailment that results in thick, sticky fluid and thick mucus in nasal lining and can also be associated with nasal polyps.
Nasal polyps affect both or one side of the nose and usually block the nasal cavity area and make it difficult to breathe. Due to a blocked nose, the sense of smelling and the taste is also affected. Some of the common symptoms include
- Headache and Facial pain
- A Runny nose and nasal conjunction
- A sense of pressure over head and face
- Loss of smell or taste
- The sensation of strain on the face
- Persistent stuffiness
- Increased nasal secretion and draining into the nose
The treatment aims to reduce the size of polyps, clearing the blocked area, and reducing or eliminating the symptoms. Some common treatments include;
Several different options are available for the treatment of nasal polyps. Most commonly used non-surgical procedures include;
- Nasal corticosteroids – To reduce the swelling and irritation, corticosteroid nasal sprays are prescribed. These sprays help to shrink the polyps and eliminate them. Some of the nasal corticosteroids include budesonide, mometasone, and fluticasone.
- Oral steroids – Oral corticosteroids such as prednisone combined with nasal sprays are prescribed if nasal steroids fail to provide relief. Injectable steroids are also given if the condition is very severe.
DUPIXENT Injection of a medication called DUPIXENT is also given to treat the condition. Injections may help to reduce the size of polyps and treat the disease.
If the polyps don’t respond to medical treatments and don’t shrink or eliminate after all the non-treatments, then nasal polypectomy is recommended to remove polyps.
- Nasal polypectomy – This operation involves the removal of polyps from within the nose. Nasal polypectomy can be followed depending upon the location of polyps in the nose. If they are easily visible, “intranasal polypectomy” is a choice, while “endoscopic nasal polypectomy” is performed if the polyps are small and located on the roof of the nose.
In both procedures, polyps or other substances blocking the nasal lining are removed using small instruments. Sometimes surgeons also enlarge the opening leading from sinus to nasal area.
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